10. Понимание основного содержания текста

Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2019 г.  – задание №10

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Perm’s industry 
2. City’s cultural life 
3. Natural resource as attraction 
4. The greatest achievement 
5. Traditionally liberal
6. Beneficial location
7. Where the name comes from
8. Too important to be left alone

A.

The word “Perm” first appeared in the 12th century in the Primary Chronicle, the main source describing the early history of the Russian people. The Perm were listed among the people who paid tribute to the Rus. The origin of the word “Perm” remains unclear. Most likely, the word came from the FinnoUgric languages and meant “far land” or “flat, forested place”. But some local residents say it may have come from Per, a hero and the main character of many local legends.

B.

Novgorodian traders were the first to show an interest in Perm. Starting from the 15th century, the Muscovite princes included the area in their plans to create a unified Russian state. During this time the first Russian villages appeared in the northern part of the region. The first industry to appear in the area was a salt factory, which developed on the Usolka river in the city of Solikamsk. Rich salt reserves generated great interest on the part of Russia’s wealthiest merchants, some of whom bought land there.

C.

The history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter the Great. Perm became the capital of the region in 1781 when the territorial structure of the country was reformed. A special commission determined that the best place would be at the crossroads of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which runs east-west and the Kazan line, which runs north-south. This choice resulted in Perm becoming a major trade and industrial centre. The city quickly grew to become one of the biggest in the region.

D.

Perm is generally stable and peaceful, so the shocks of 1917 did not reach it right away. Neither did they have the same bloody results as in Petrograd. Perm tried to distance itself from the excesses and did not share the enthusiasm for change of its neighbours. Residents supported more moderate parties. They voted for the establishment of a west European style democracy in Russia. Unfortunately, the city could not stay completely unaffected, as both the White and the Red armies wanted its factories.

E.

Perm’s desire for stability and self-control made the region seem like a “swamp” during the democratic reforms of the 1990s. Unlike other regions, there were no intense social conflicts or strikes. Nevertheless, Perm was always among the regions that supported the democratic movement. In the 1999 elections, the party that wanted to continue the reforms won a majority in the region. So the city got an unofficial status of “the capital of civil society” or even “the capital of Russian liberalism”.

F.

During the Second World War many factories were moved to Perm Oblast and continued to work there after it ended. Chemicals, non-ferrous metallurgy, and oil refining were the key industries after the war. Other factories produced aircraft engines, equipment for telephones, ships, bicycles, and cable. Perm press produces about 70 percent of Russia’s currency and stamped envelopes. Nowadays several major business companies are located in Perm. The biggest players of Russian aircraft industry are among them.

G.

Perm has at least a dozen theatres featuring productions that are attracting audiences from faraway cities, and even from abroad. The broad esplanade running from the city’s main square has become the site of almost continuous international art, theatre and music fairs during the summer. Even the former prison camp with grim walls outside town was converted into a theater last July for a production of “Fidelio”, Beethoven’s opera about political repression. The performance was well-reviewed.

Ответ:

A B C D E F G

Демонстрационный вариант ЕГЭ 2017 г.  – задание №10

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. For information and urgent help
2. World without buttons
3. To monitor and treat the disease
4. A built-in charger
5. Key under your skin
6. Big brother is watching you
7. Disadvantages of tech
8. Phone always on you

A.
Sure, we’re virtually connected to our phones 24/7 now, but what if we could be literally plugged in to our phones? That’s already starting to happen. Last year, for instance, artist Anthony Antonellis had a chip put in his arm that could store and transfer data to his handheld smartphone. And researchers are already experimenting with sensors that turn human bone into living speakers.

B.
In the future patients will be able to use implantable technologies to diagnose and even treat diseases. Scientists in London are developing swallowable capsule-sized chip that will control fat levels in obese patients and generate genetic material that makes them feel “full”. It has potential as an alternative to surgery to handle obesity. Also it can monitor blood-sugar levels for diabetics.

C.
The U.S. military has programs to identify any person using face scanning device. Some people see it as a doubtless advantage: improved crime fighting, secure elections and never a lost child again. However, such technologies can hammer against social norms and raise privacy issues. And one day there might be a computer to see all, know all and control all.

D.
One of the challenges for implantable tech is delivering power to devices which are inside human bodies. You can’t plug them in as you do with your phone or computer. You can’t easily take them out to replace a battery. A team in Cambridge is working on specific bio batteries that can generate power inside the body, transfer it wirelessly where needed, and then simply melt away.

E.
Soon tattoos will not only make you look cool but will be able to perform useful tasks, like opening your car or entering smartphone codes with a fingerpoint. Researchers have made an implantable skin fibers thinner than a human hair. Scientists are working on the chip that can be put inside a finger through a tattoo-like process, letting you unlock things or enter codes simply by pointing.

F.
The British research team is developing pills with microprocessors in them that can text to hospitals directly from inside your body. The pills can share inside info to help doctors know if you are taking your medication properly and if it is having the desired effect. Moreover, in case of emergency, it can send a signal to the computer and the ambulance will come straight away.

G.
Lately touchscreens are everywhere – from computers, phones, tablets to car systems and vending machines. Even doorbells now include touch screencontrols. One has to wonder: are we moving to a world of only touchscreen devices? And the answer is probably yes. We are coming to an age where every flat or even curved surface could be made a touchscreen and we can operate from it.

Ответ:

A B C D E F G

 


ЕГЭ 2016 (досрочный период)

Установите соответствие тем 1 — 8 текстам A — G. Занесите свои ответы в соответствующее поле справа. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании одна тема лишняя.

1. Look to your past

2. Health benefits of hobbies

3. Finding a hobby that suits you

4. Dangerous hobby

5. Time out with a purpose

6. Finding time for your hobby

7. Making new friends

8. Finding excitement

A.                                                                                                                   Hobbies provide work-free and responsibility-free time in your schedule. This can be especially useful for people who feel stressed by all that they have to do and need to recharge their batteries. For some of us it may be difficult to give ourselves permission to just sit and relax. Having a hobby, however, can provide a break and help people feel that they’re not just ‘sitting around’ but are using their free time for something productive.

B.                                                                                                                   Are there things you enjoyed as a child that you might still enjoy as an adult? Maybe you had a fantastic record collection, loved to make clothes for your dolls or were always out on your bike. Those are all things you could pick up again as an adult that would make great hobbies. Or there may be hobbies in your home right now that you started but have recently forgotten about. Maybe it’s time to finish that crochet project or pick up the guitar again.

C.                                                                                                                     If you’re adding a new thing into your life, you have to take time and focus away from something else. The good news is that most of us have a lot of time we’re not using well, either because we’re spending a lot of time online or watching TV or just wasting time we could be spending on our hobbies. See if you can spend a half hour or so every other day to explore your interest. This way it would be best in case you find that hobby isn’t for you after all.

D.                                                                                                                   Of course, everyone is different and your personality does play a role in what sorts of hobbies you’ll like. If you don’t have a lot of patience you might feel that knitting is too much for you, but exploring quick sewing projects might be a better choice. Maybe you really like being with friends, so you need to take a class or have an interest that you can do with a group. If you travel a lot, something portable or that you can do anywhere is helpful.

E.                                                                                                                   One study found that those who engage in physical leisure activities for at least 20 minutes once a week are less likely to have a fatigue. Other research found that enjoyable activities performed during leisure time were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, and body mass index, and feelings of better physical function. Such activities were also associated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression.

F.                                                                                                                   When you look for material or equipment for your hobby, you are likely to find people who have the same hobby as you. You may be surprised to know how serious some people are about their hobbies and therefore would have great knowledge of their chosen pastime. Instead of meeting people from your work or college or those whom you have grown apart with, it is a great way to meet people with whom you have something in common.

G.                                                                                                                   For those who aren’t very stressed and may actually be understimulated, hobbies provide a nice source of eustress, the healthy kind of stress that we all need to remain feeling happy about life. If the rest of your life is somewhat dull or uninspiring, hobbies can provide meaning and fun, and can break up a boring schedule, without feeling like work. In other words, hobbies can provide just the right amount of challenge.

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